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When later the Apostolici tried to live in the same way as the mendicants, without doing their work, Salimbene rebuked them indignantly: "They wish to live", he writes, "on the charity of the Christian people, although they do nothing for it, they hear no confessions, they do not preach, nor do they give edification, as do the Friars Minor and the Preachers" (Mon. This new form of conventual life was not introduced without strong opposition. The Dominicans were the first religious order to introduce the higher studies as a special point in their statutes and if they probably owe their mendicancy to the influence of St. Dominic, the Friars Minor are probably indebted for their higher studies to the influence or at least to the example of the Preachers.With what feelings the older orders occasionally regarded the rapid spread of the mendicants may be gathered from the it Chronica majora, ad an. On the other hand the Church appreciated the work of the new orders and exempted them from the jurisdiction of the bishops, granting them extensive faculties for preaching and hearing, confessions, together with the right of burial in their own churches, rights reserved hitherto to the secular clergy.The work of the mendicants in the pulpit, in the confessional, in the service of the sick and the socially weak, in the foreign missions, had no parallel in the Middle Ages.This same apostolical activity had two consequences, which form further characteristics of the mendicant friars, a new organization of claustrul life and, the adoption of a special means of providing subsistence.The first step of Alexander IV was to suspend the dispositions of his predecessor, Bull "Nee insolitium", 22 Dec., 1254 ( Chartularium I, 1276), in which he promised new dispositions and forbade meanwhile to act against the mendicants. cit., 17-72; Brown, op cit 11, 18-41, here under a false title).In these critical circumstances it was doubly unfortunate that Gerard di Borgo S. Amour, the leader of the opposition against the mendicants, publicly attacked the treatise in his sermon "Qui amat (ed. The author starts from II Tim., iii sqq., and sees the fulfillment of those words in the rise of the mendicant friars, who however are not specified, though everybody knew the significance. 1256, he condemned the treatise "De Periculis novissimorum temporum" in the Bull "Romanus Pontifex" (Chartarium I, 1531). This redoubtable attack against the mendicants, conducted by the most famous university, was met by the ablest writers from among the friars. Thomas Aquinas wrote "Contra impugnantes Dei cultum"; St.

By uniting utter poverty to entire subjection toward, St. Dominic the bulwark of orthodoxy against the new heretics, and the two orders of Friars Minor and Preachers proved themselves a great help both to the inner and to the external life of the Church.

On the whole it might be said that the Church protected the regulars against unjust attacks, while on the other hand she found means to redress abuses, tending to endanger the legitimate interests of the secular clergy .

The opposition to the mendicants was particularly strong at the University of Paris, and in France generally, less violent at the University of Oxford and in England. Although this Bull speaks in a general way and is addressed to different countries the abuses enumerated by it were probably of local character.

The mendicants, unlike the monks, were not bound by a votum stabilatis ( vow of permanancy) to one convent but enjoyed considerable liberty.

Not only might they be called upon to exercise their ministry within the limits of a province, but, with permission of the general, they could be sent all over the world.

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