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Ancient Iranian peoples who emerged after 1000 BC include the Persians, Parthians, Medes, Scythians, Alans, Bactrians, Dahae, Massagetae, Khwarezmians, Saka, Sarmatians, Sogdians, Sagartians, probably Cimmerians and other peoples of Central Asia, the Caucasus, Eastern Europe and the Iranian Plateau.In the 1st millennium AD, their area of settlement was reduced as a result of Slavic, Germanic, Turkic and Mongol expansions and many being subjected to Slavicisation.In cases where an imminent threat exists, immediately contact your local law enforcement agencies and provide them with the threat information.To contact the Central Intelligence Agency click here.In the late part of the Avesta (Videvdat 1), one of the mentioned homelands was referred to as Airyan'əm Vaējah which approximately means "expanse of the Iranians".The homeland varied in its geographic range, the area around Herat (Pliny's view) and even the entire expanse of the Iranian plateau (Strabo's designation).Eudemus of Rhodes (Dubitationes et Solutiones de Primis Principiis, in Platonis Parmenidem) refers to "the Magi and all those of Iranian (áreion) lineage".Diodorus Siculus (1.94.2) considers Zoroaster (Zathraustēs) as one of the Arianoi.

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We read every letter, fax, or e-mail we receive, and we will convey your comments to CIA officials outside OPA as appropriate.SENOGA-ZAKE/traditional, adapted by Graham HYSLOP, Thomas KALUME, Peter KIBUKOSYA, Washington OMONDI, and George W. ADERIBIGBE/Benedict Elide ODIASE note: adopted 1978; lyrics are a mixture of the five top entries in a national contest name: "Come Ye Blessed" lyrics/music: New Testament/John Prindle SCOTT note: the local anthem, whose lyrics consist of the words from Matthew -36, 40, is also known as "The Pitcairn Anthem;" as a territory of Australia, "God Save the Queen" is official (see Australia); however, the island does not recognize "Advance Australia Fair" name: "Gi Talo Gi Halom Tasi" (In the Middle of the Sea) lyrics/music: Jose S.SENOGA-ZAKE note: adopted 1963; based on a traditional Kenyan folk song name: "Aegukka" (Patriotic Song) lyrics/music: PAK Se Yong/KIM Won Gyun note: adopted 1947; both North Korea's and South Korea's anthems share the same name and have a vaguely similar melody but have different lyrics; the North Korean anthem is also known as "Ach'imun pinnara" (Let Morning Shine) name: "Aegukga" (Patriotic Song) lyrics/music: YUN Ch'i-Ho or AN Ch'ang-Ho/AHN Eaktay note: adopted 1948, well-known by 1910; both North Korea's and South Korea's anthems share the same name and have a vaguely similar melody but have different lyrics name: "Pheng Xat Lao" (Hymn of the Lao People) lyrics/music: SISANA Sisane/THONGDY Sounthonevichit note: music adopted 1945, lyrics adopted 1975; the anthem's lyrics were changed following the 1975 Communist revolution that overthrew the monarchy name: "Dievs, sveti Latviju! PANGELINAN [Chamoru], David PETER [Carolinian]/Wilhelm GANZHORN note: adopted 1996; the Carolinian version of the song is known as "Satil Matawal Pacifico;" as a commonwealth of the US, in addition to the local anthem, "The Star-Spangled Banner" is official (see United States) name: "Ja, vi elsker dette landet" (Yes, We Love This Country) lyrics/music: lyrics/music: Bjornstjerne BJORNSON/Rikard NORDRAAK note: adopted 1864; in addition to the national anthem, "Kongesangen" (Song of the King), which uses the tune of "God Save the Queen," serves as the royal anthem name: "Nashid as-Salaam as-Sultani" (The Sultan's Anthem) lyrics/music: Rashid bin Uzayyiz al KHUSAIDI/James Frederick MILLS, arranged by Bernard EBBINGHAUS note: adopted 1932; new lyrics written after QABOOS bin Said al Said gained power in 1970; first performed by the band of a British ship as a salute to the Sultan during a 1932 visit to Muscat; the bandmaster of the HMS Hawkins was asked to write a salutation to the Sultan on the occasion of his ship visit name: "Paraguayos, Republica o muerte! ) lyrics/music: Francisco Esteban ACUNA de Figueroa/disputed note: adopted 1934, in use since 1846; officially adopted following its re-arrangement in 1934 name: "Lupang Hinirang" (Chosen Land) lyrics/music: Jose PALMA (revised by Felipe PADILLA de Leon)/Julian FELIPE note: music adopted 1898, original Spanish lyrics adopted 1899, Filipino (Tagalog) lyrics adopted 1956; although the original lyrics were written in Spanish, later English and Filipino versions were created; today, only the Filipino version is used name: "Mazurek Dabrowskiego" (Dabrowski's Mazurka) lyrics/music: Jozef WYBICKI/traditional note: adopted 1927; the anthem, commonly known as "Jeszcze Polska nie zginela" (Poland Has Not Yet Perished), was written in 1797; the lyrics resonate strongly with Poles because they reflect the numerous occasions in which the nation's lands have been occupied name: "A Portugesa" (The Song of the Portuguese) lyrics/music: Henrique LOPES DE MENDOCA/Alfredo KEIL note: adopted 1910; "A Portuguesa" was originally written to protest the Portuguese monarchy's acquiescence to the 1890 British ultimatum forcing Portugal to give up areas of Africa; the lyrics refer to the "insult" that resulted from the event name: "La Borinquena" (The Puerto Rican) lyrics/music: Manuel Fernandez JUNCOS/Felix Astol ARTES note: music adopted 1952, lyrics adopted 1977; the local anthem's name is a reference to the indigenous name of the island, Borinquen; the music was originally composed as a dance in 1867 and gained popularity in the early 20th century; there is some evidence that the music was written by Francisco RAMIREZ; as a commonwealth of the US, "The Star-Spangled Banner" is official (see United States) name: "Al-Salam Al-Amiri" (The Amiri Salute) lyrics/music: Sheikh MUBARAK bin Saif al-Thani/Abdul Aziz Nasser OBAIDAN note: adopted 1996; anthem first performed that year at a meeting of the Gulf Cooperative Council hosted by Qatar name: "Gimn Rossiyskoy Federatsii" (National Anthem of the Russian Federation) lyrics/music: Sergey Vladimirovich MIKHALKOV/Aleksandr Vasilyevich ALEKSANDROV note: in 2000, Russia adopted the tune of the anthem of the former Soviet Union (composed in 1939); the lyrics, also adopted in 2000, were written by the same person who authored the Soviet lyrics in 1943 name: "L'Hymne a St. Barthelemy) lyrics/music: Isabelle Massart DERAVIN/Michael VALENTI note: local anthem in use since 1999; as a collectivity of France, "La Marseillaise" is official (see France) name: "O Sweet Saint Martin's Land" lyrics/music: Gerard KEMPS note: the song, written in 1958, is used as an unofficial anthem for the entire island (both French and Dutch sides); as a collectivity of France, in addition to the local anthem, "La Marseillaise" remains official on the French side (see France); as a constituent part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, in addition to the local anthem, "Het Wilhelmus" remains official on the Dutch side (see Netherlands) name: "Inno Nazionale della Repubblica" (National Anthem of the Republic) lyrics/music: no lyrics/Federico CONSOLO note: adopted 1894; the music for the lyric-less anthem is based on a 10th century chorale piece name: "Pincez Tous vos Koras, Frappez les Balafons" (Pluck Your Koras, Strike the Balafons) lyrics/music: Leopold Sedar SENGHOR/Herbert PEPPER note: adopted 1960; lyrics written by Leopold Sedar SENGHOR, Senegal's first president; the anthem sometimes played incorporating the Koras (harp-like stringed instruments) and Balafons (types of xylophones) mentioned in the title name: "Boze pravde" (God of Justice) lyrics/music: Jovan DORDEVIC/Davorin JENKO note: adopted 1904; song originally written as part of a play in 1872 and has been used as an anthem by the Serbian people throughout the 20th and 21st centuries name: "O Sweet Saint Martin's Land" lyrics/music: Gerard KEMPS note: the song, written in 1958, is used as an unofficial anthem for the entire island (both French and Dutch sides); as a collectivity of France, in addition to the local anthem, "La Marseillaise" is official on the French side (see France); as a constituent part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, in addition to the local anthem, "Het Wilhelmus" is official on the Dutch side (see Netherlands) name: "Zdravljica" (A Toast) lyrics/music: France PRESEREN/Stanko PREMRL note: adopted 1989; originally written in 1848; the full poem, whose seventh verse is used as the anthem, speaks of pan-Slavic nationalism name: "National Anthem of South Africa" lyrics/music: Enoch SONTONGA and Cornelius Jacob LANGENHOVEN/Enoch SONTONGA and Marthinus LOURENS de Villiers note: adopted 1994; a combination of "N'kosi Sikelel' i Africa" (God Bless Africa) and "Die Stem van Suid Afrika" (The Call of South Africa), which were respectively the anthems of the non-white and white communities under apartheid; official lyrics contain a mixture of Xhosa, Zulu, Sesotho, Afrikaans, and English (i.e., the five most widely spoken of South Africa's 11 official languages); music incorporates the melody used in the Tanzanian and Zambian anthems name: "Himno Nacional Espanol" (National Anthem of Spain) lyrics/music: no lyrics/unknown note: officially in use between 17, restored in 1939; the Spanish anthem is the first anthem to be officially adopted, but it has no lyrics; in the years prior to 1931 it became known as "Marcha Real" (The Royal March); it first appeared in a 1761 military bugle call book and was replaced by "Himno de Riego" in the years between 19; the long version of the anthem is used for the king, while the short version is used for the prince, prime minister, and occasions such as sporting events name: "Nahnu Djundulla Djundulwatan" (We Are the Army of God and of Our Land) lyrics/music: Sayed Ahmad Muhammad SALIH/Ahmad MURJAN note: adopted 1956; originally served as the anthem of the Sudanese military name: "God zij met ons Suriname!In Middle Persian, Shapur says "ērānšahr xwadāy hēm" and in Parthian he says "aryānšahr xwadāy ahēm".The Avesta clearly uses airiia- as an ethnic name (Videvdat 1; Yasht 13.143–44, etc.), where it appears in expressions such as airyāfi daiŋˊhāvō ("Iranian lands"), airyō šayanəm ("land inhabited by Iranians"), and airyanəm vaējō vaŋhuyāfi dāityayāfi ("Iranian stretch of the good Dāityā").

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