Dating spode china
Before this discovery, there were no colours that could stand the high temperatures of the glazing kilns.
Prior to this discovery, only overglaze enamel colours, applied after glazing, were used on figures, a method that was to continue alongside the use of cobalt blue.
Cobalt blue is an indicator of the period between 18, and was widely used.
After 1865 cobalt blue was no longer in use; and overglaze enamel colours were used exclusively. By the1870's most figures were produced in white, and a less expensive form of gilding was introduced, which was painted on after firing which made it a much cheaper method of production.
Actors and actresses were portrayed in their most familiar roles.
Few Staffordshire figures bear makers marks, although some experts can identify similarities of style that might come from an individual factory (for example, the style of the base may provide a clue).
Some figures were so complicated they required three moulds to complete.
Many small forgotten factories as well as the giants such as Spode, Wedgwood, Adams, clustered in the towns of Burslem, Cobridge, Fenton, Longton, Stoke and Tunstall, now incorporated in the present day town of Stoke-on-Trent.
The new middle classes were eager to emulate their betters by decorating their homes with objects similar to costly Meissen and Chelsea figures, and Staffordshire potters obliged by turning out painted and glazed pottery sheep dogs, cattle and more exotic animals such as zebra and elephants.
Figures of gods and goddesses, examples drawn from literature, famous political and military men and above all, representations of royalty, all found homes in England and America.
While not nearly as attractive as later models, these primitive examples can sell for many hundreds of pounds.
Englands Industrial Revolution coincided almost exactly with the start of Queen Victoria's reign in 1837, creating wealth from industry.